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Ethnicity, Separatism and Terrorism in Xinjiang: China's Triple Conundrum
Bhavna Singh

Massive investments, continuous political harangues and high propaganda have all failed to deliver the much espoused ‘harmonious’, ‘stable’ and ‘integrative’ development in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR). In context of the Urumqi Crisis and the ETIM (East Turkestan Islamic Movement) being labeled as the ‘gravest terrorist threat’ to national sovereignty, this paper looks at the nature of ethnic, religious and militant influences on the Uyghur-Chinese state relationship. It further delves into the policies adopted by China to overcome the menace of ‘the three evils’ – extremism, terrorism and separatism – and the importance of the Xinjiang question in its foreign policy in reference to China’s immediate neighbourhood. It also examines the problems that have remained persistent and outlines possible solutions for the purpose of establishing peace in the region.

I.    Ethnicity as the linchpin
II.    Religious moorings and separatism
III.    Uyghur terrorism and the State’s response
IV.    Development: antidote or fuel for dissent
V.    Strategic implications
VI.    Future dilemmas

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