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Alternative approaches to security, national integration, governance & non military challenges

R. Radhakrishnan, Prafulla Ketkar & Aisha Sultanat

This book is the end product of a three year project to examine these non-military sources of insecurity in India. It gathers together separate monographs by three young scholars. Traditional approaches to national security have privileged State security without according equal importance to human security or the security of the individual, its ultimate beneficiary. Neither are non-military threats like economic instability, ethnic, caste and communal tensions, demographic movements, environmental degradation, apart from the continuing menace of terrorism, provided salience, although the focus of national security has decisively shifted from inter-state to intra-state conflicts within regional security complexes in the international system. The Indian State is not unaware of these looming, non-traditional and emerging dangers, but the enfeeblement of its political and administrative institutions has adversely affected its capacity to meet these threats while the expectations of the people have risen and are growing in an exponential manner.

This book is the end product of a three-year project to examine these non-military sources of insecurity in India. It gathers together separate monographs by three young scholars. Each of these studies is grounded in an historical analysis taking note of the existing literature, while seeking to derive practical recommendations with policy relevance. A conscious effort has proceeded to link these several issues to security and highlight that the key to meeting these non-military threats to national security, is not by graduating the use of force, but by providing basic good governance. These studies are being published in the hope of stirring interest in an area of current neglect by the academic and policy communities. The Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (IPCS) was established in August 1996 as an independent think tank devoted to studying security issues relating to South Asia. Over the years leading strategic thinkers, academicians, policy makers and media persons have been associated with the Institute in its endeavour to draw up a comprehensive framework for security studies – one which can cater to the changing demands of national, regional and global security. The Institute has steadily enlarged its range of activities since inception. Apart from analyzing the existing approaches to security, the Institute has made a foray into evolving alternate approaches to security relevant to India and the world, to promote a harmonious and secure regional and global order.

Table of Contents

I. Challenges to National Integration
1. Introduction
2. Ethnic Conflicts
3. Communalism
4. The Politics of Caste
5. Regionalism: The Politics of Deprivation
6. South Asian Scenario
7. Conclusion; 8. Recommendations

II. Governance and Security
9. An Overview
10. Crisis of Governance in South Asia and Its Import on India
11. Criminalisation of Politics in India
12. Casteism and Communalism in India
13. Marginalisation of the Vulnerable Sections of the Society
14. Security-through Good Governance

III. Non-military Challenges to Security
15. Non-Military Threats and the Changing Dimensions of Security
16. Migration: A Source of Insecurity
17. Organised Crime: Source of Instability
18. Information and Communication Revolution: Opportunities and Challenges
19. Terrorism: Non-Military Instrument of War
20. Environmental Degradation and Conflicts in South Asia
21. Mitigating Non-Military Challenges

About the Authors

R. Radhakrishnan had worked at the Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies as a Research Officer from April 2002 – March 2005. He pursued his higher studies at the Centre for Social Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. His M.Phil dissertation was on “Intellectual Property Rights and Bio-diversity: Implications and options for India” (Centre for Poltical Studies). His research interests include politics and conflicts based on identities, globalization, mass media and environmentalism. He had written extensively for the IPCS web on issues related to democracy, governance and identity politics in India. Presently he is working as an Assistant Professor at JICM, Bhopal after a stint into parliamentary research for three years which involved providing inputs to some parliamentarians on issues concerning governance and India’s foreign policy.

Prafulla Ketkar was a Research Officer at the institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (IPCS) after completing his M.Phil, in International Politcis. His M.Phil. dissertation was on "New Retionalism and its impact on Globlisation." For his "New Retionalism and its impact on Globalisation." For his doctoral work he has submittted a synopsis on "Power and Security in the Information Age". His research intersts include energy security, cyber terrorism, bio-terrorism, environmental security, organized crime, criminalization of politics and globalization.

Aisha Sultanat was a Research Officer at the institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (IPCS), New Delhi.


The Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (IPCS) is the premier South Asian think tank which conducts independent research on and provides an in depth analysis of conventional and non-conventional issues related to national and South Asian security including nuclear issues, disarmament, non-proliferation, weapons of mass destruction, the war on terrorism, counter terrorism , strategies security sector reforms, and armed conflict and peace processes in the region.

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